Now on temporary exhibit inside Building 1 at the Southeastern Railway Museum is an assortment of fare collection-related MARTA objects.

Items on display include a bus fare collection box, two token machines, and two turnstiles.

In the early era of the streetcar, a motorman and a conductor would work together on two-man cars – the motorman operating the streetcar and the conductor collecting fares and handling payments. Having two men working on each streetcar was costly to the transit systems, and in the 1920s, a new system emerged: fare box collection.

Use of a fare box (along with the introduction of the ‘dead-man switch’) eliminated the need for a conductor, therefore reducing labor costs. Passengers would deposit their correct coins directly into the fare box when boarding, allowing the motorman to both operate the streetcar and collect fares. The methods used on the one-man safety car are still common on buses today.

Soon, transit systems began issuing tokens for single trips. Tokens made boarding faster, and systems could encourage ridership by offering discounts on tokens bought in bulk. Tokens were popular on MARTA buses and trains for decades. MARTA accepted its last token in 2010.

MARTA tokens embedded in the sidewalks outside the Decatur MARTA station

In the 1970s, MARTA introduced the TransCard, a magnetic fare card that could hold a weekly or monthly pass. After inserting the card into the fare gate, the ticket would pop out the top and unlock the gate. Half-fare TransCards were also available.

In 2007, MARTA initiated the switch to reusable electronic fare cards called the Breeze Card. Breeze Cards can store cash, trips, or passes and can be bought at vending machines located at MARTA stations. Breeze Cards can also be used on other regional transit systems.

The turnstiles on display in the exhibit come from Lindbergh Center station and were removed in 2008 or 2009 to make way for new machines that would accept the Breeze Card. New fare gates are designed to better prevent fare evasion.

Fare collection continues to evolve with payment by phone and credit card. Currently, MARTA is installing scanners for fare boxes on buses and on fare gates at train stations that will read a bar code or QR code on a phone screen and deduct the fare through an app. Some transit systems around the country are considering eliminating fare boxes entirely in favor of credit card or phone-only payment, enforced through random inspections. In Portland, OR, the fare collection system has already been eliminated, saving the system millions of dollars in cash handling, fare box maintenance, hauling, auditing, and more.


Kristen Fredriksen
July 31, 2018

The Western Union #3558 tool car is almost ready for lettering.

Lettering for one of the museum’s historic railroad cars involves research to find in-service photographs or drawings made of the same or similar cars. Inspection of the actual car lettering can also provide the information needed on some cars.

Currently, the museum has a black and white photograph of its Western Union car in 1959 in addition to photographs and drawings of other cars used by the Western Union Company for guidance.

Painter and helper getting ready to spray paint the Southern Railway logo on the car in white

Research conducted by SRM librarians indicates that the lettering of the car is yellow. White lettering was likely used on the metal car frame for the repair work done by a railroad.

With this information, Ben Neal will make the lettering on heavy Kraft paper for the lettering stencils. The letters are scaled to size and duplicated in appearance according to the historic photographs. Some lettering has already been remade a second time when Ben realized the lettering he made was not the correct size.

He will then cut the letters out where paint will be applied.

The restoration team’s role is to have a well-painted surface that is clean and ready to apply paint to. The crew has recently applied the second coat of paint to the car for that purpose.

Ben will then tape the stencils to the car for the painting work. He will paint with artist quality brushes. He will apply a thick paint for the lettering on top of the Pullman Green sides. This will be done letter by letter until complete.

Ben plans to apply the lettering in early June.



Lloyd Neal closes a paint can after applying paint to the Western Union tool car. Kristen Fredriksen. May 12, 2018.

Ties: The Southern Railway System Magazine. June 1947. Volume I, Number 4. Not copyrighted.

With the donation of a 1930s-era log cart, assistant librarian Lloyd Neal has compiled some research on the antique vehicles.

Two-wheeled, animal-powered, wooden ‘log carts’ were used in the timber industry from the late 1800s up to the mid 1900s. Log carts could be found in a number of states in a variety of designs and wheel sizes. These could be powered by mules, horses, or oxen.

High-wheeler hauling log at Ellaville

The purpose of the log cart was to move the log from where it was cut in the forest to a loading area for transport to the saw mill. The loading point is generally called a ‘landing’. The process of moving the log to the landing is called ‘skidding’. The log carts could also be used to move the logs directly to the saw mill from the forest. Movement of the logs from the landing to the saw mill was often by railroad until the extensive use of trucks before and after World War II.

Lifting one end of a log off of the ground made the log easier to move. The log was dragged or skidded with the other end of the log on the ground. The lifted end would be swung under the axle of the log cart for movement. Chains or a grapple would be attached to lift one end of the log. Some types used in the south used a winch to lift up the end of the log from the ground. The winch was operated by hand with levers inserted into slots on the winch. A ratchet held the winch in position until ready for release at the landing.


Hauling logs by oxen and high-wheelers to Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad Company depot – Lake Defuniak, FL. Ox-powered log cart at a saw mill hauling two logs in the center with two more log carts to the right in the background. Finished lumber is being stacked on a four wheel cart, also oxen powered. Photograph from the same Florida city as SRM’s mule-powered log cart.

There were a number of other names used for the log carts such as ‘high wheels’, ‘big wheels’, and ‘logging wheels’.

Log carts built out of wood in the south could have either an arched or straight axle. The wagon wheels on the arched axle design generally had a diameter of about five feet. The straight axle-type wagon wheels could be as much as ten feet in diameter.

The recently-donated log cart at SRM is an arched-type axle that was used in the south until the 1940s with the winch and wagon wheels in the general description above of log carts used in the south. The log cart comes from the Lake Defuniak, Florida area and illustrates the use of animal powered transportation in the forest industry in the southeastern states for many years.

The forest industry has been and continues to be a major employer and business in the southeast. A 2016 report states that the forest industry is the second largest employer after the poultry industry in manufacturing jobs in the state of Georgia (Economic Benefits of the Forest Industry, Georgia: 2016 Report of the Georgia Forestry Commission).

It is fitting that SRM displays the mule-powered log cart next to Campbell Limestone No. 9 steam locomotive. This locomotive served the forest industry for years in both Alabama and South Carolina. It is not known, but possible, that similar log carts may have been in use with No. 9 when it was used by the Kentucky Lumber Company (Alabama) and/or Santee River Hardwood Company (South Carolina).

For more on SRM’s log cart, see our previous blog post.


By Lloyd Neal, Assistant Librarian



Hauling logs by oxen and high-wheelers to Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad Company depot – Lake Defuniak, Florida. 190-?. Black & white photoprint. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Accessed 10 May. 2018. <>

High-wheeler hauling log at Ellaville. 1925. Black &amp; white photonegative. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Accessed 10 May. 2018. <>


DULUTH, Ga. — The Southeastern Railway Museum has placed on display a newly donated mule-powered log cart.

A DeFuniak Springs, Fla., logging company Carl Adkison operated used the cart during the 1930s. It was one of several carts Adkison used and survived after it was stored in a shed and away from the elements.

The two-wheel, one-axle cart has a winch to pull one end of the log off the ground. Mules then dragged it to a loading area for its trip to the sawmill.

Adkison’s son, L.L. Adkison Sr. worked with his father in the 1940s until joining the army in 1944. He later moved to the Atlanta area, where he operated Georgia Moulding Corp. He displayed the cart at the company where it was a local landmark for years.

L.L. Adkison Sr. kept the cart at his home after he retired from Georgia Moulding and made repairs to the cart, including replacing spokes of the wheels. He heated the metal rims on the wooden wheels and cooled them on for a tight fit. L.L. Adkison Sr.’s wife donated the cart to the museum, and the artifact was brought to the museum with the help of the Adkisons’ son, Lou (L.L. Adkison, Jr.).

A Quirky People Mover with Big Dreams
Kristen Fredriksen and Duncan Carel

From 1974 to the early 1980s, a unique personal rapid transit system ran on the campus of the Georgia Institute of Technology but was never opened to the public. Called the Transette, the system underwent years of development and testing, but ultimately, delays and a lack of funding shut the project down.

Research into personal rapid transit possibilities intensified in the 1960s and 1970s with the signing of the Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 and the creation of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (now the Federal Transit Administration). Cities sought a way to more efficiently transport small groups of people (and goods) in vehicles that took up less space, arrived more frequently, and could make better point-to-point connections. The lightweight vehicles would travel on guideways between stations, stopping as requested by passengers. A major advantage to these types of systems was that they “allowed vehicles to wait for people rather than forcing people to wait for vehicles,” according to Boeing.

The Transette’s belt-driven passive vehicle system was invented by Dr. J.F. Sutton while he was employed by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. Lockheed was not interested in developing automated transportation at the time, and the invention was released to Dr. Sutton (U.S. Patent No. 3,690,367). Transette, Inc. was formed in 1972, and two years later, Georgia Tech was issued a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to install and test the Transette system using Transette, Inc. as a subcontractor.

The Transette was “intended to fulfill the need for a system that [could] furnish effective, low-cost transportation of people over moderate distances in high pedestrian traffic areas” according to the 1977 Final Report of Verification Testing, and per some optimistic accounts, the Transette may have eventually even replaced automobiles on campus for everyday use. Others saw applications of the Transette system at airports, shopping centers, condominiums, parks, and more.A .25-mile test loop was built on the campus of Georgia Tech from the Student Center to a nearby parking lot between 1974 and 1976. The Transette system was autonomously controlled using a series of solid state logic computers; some of the controls developed for the Transette paved the way for other autonomous transit systems used today. The vehicles were propelled by a conveyor belt-like system under a drive wheel, which, using gearing and a clutch, made it possible for the vehicle to travel twice the speed of the belt. Each fiberglass-and-steel vehicle held four passengers and the theoretical maximum capacity for Phase I was about 900 passengers per hour. The Transette had a top speed of 15 mph (avg. 12.4 mph). According to Joe Ledlie, the “patchwork prototype” looked like “a glorified golf cart cruising along a baby roller-coaster track.” It became operational in October of 1976 and underwent an initial round of testing before funding ran out.

Between 1976 and 1979, a number of delays stalled the project until a modification program intended to tackle some of the Transette’s problems was funded in mid-1979. Tests were then carried out on the system by a number of different organizations, including the NSF and the U.S. Department of Transportation. Of the planned eight original Transette vehicles, just two were built during the initial phase. The system never carried passengers due to safety concerns and performance and reliability issues. Even after the modifications, it was concluded that without major changes, the system was unsuitable for use. Over the course of the project, the costs of building and evaluating the Transette system rose to a total of $685,500 (about $3.5 million today).

Soon after funding dried up and interest dwindled, the system was dismantled and scrapped. The only known surviving bit of this personal rapid transit system is a single Transette car, currently on display at the Southeastern Railway Museum in Building 2. 

The Transette was donated to the Southeastern Railway Museum in 2004.  The museum’s status as “The Official Transportation History Museum of the State of Georgia” and a conversation between Dr. Michael Meyer, Chair of the Georgia Transportation Institute of the Georgia Tech School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and graduate student Paul Grether resulted in the donation.  Dr. Meyer had been placed in charge of the Transette vehicle and it was placed in temporary storage at the Mason Building on campus.  As a result of the conversations, it was agreed that the Museum would take over and display the Transette to document the artifact of the public transit research on the Georgia Tech campus that took place in the late 1970s and early 1980s by Dr. Frank Sutton and others.

The Transette was moved by Paul Grether and Nick Henderson to SRM in 2004.

Today, only a few personal rapid transit systems are operational. The largest and longest-running system can be found at West Viriginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia, where over 15,000 passengers ride the system each day.



More historic photos and articles: Paul Grether, Flickr

Further reading:

Boeing: Personal Rapid Transit | Historical Snapshot

Final Report: Verification Testing of the Transette Personal Rapid Transit System (March 1977)

Personal Rapid Transit | West Virginia University

Technical Assessment of the Transette System (October 1981)